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  • Light, N. (in press). Keep It Simple? Consumer Perceptions of Brand Simplicity and Risk. Journal of Marketing Research. 

  • Peters, E., Shoots-Reinhard, B., & Chansiri, K. (in press). Testing two attention-related effects in COVID-19 vaccine likelihood. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition.


  • Bearth, A., Otten, C. D., & Cohen, A. S. (2024). Consumers' perceptions and acceptance of genome editing in agriculture: Insights from the United States of America and Switzerland. Food Research International, 178, 113982

  • Ely, M. & Markowitz, D. (2023).The psychological focus of white house press secretaries during scandal: A case study of the Obama and Trump administrations. Psychology of Language and Communication, 28(1) 59-76.

  • Slavik, C.E., Chapman, D.A., Segre Cohen, A., Bendefaa, N., Peters, E. (2024). Clearing the air: evaluating institutions’ social media health messaging on wildfire and smoke risks in the US Pacific Northwest. BMC Public Health.


  • Evans, A., Benedetti, M. H., Chang, G., Shoots-Reinhard, B., Chen, Z., Smith, G. A., & Zhu, M. (2023). A comparison of licensed driver counts from the Federal Highway Administration and driver licensing agencies in 11 states. Traffic Injury Prevention, 0(0), 1–5. 

  • Goodman, A., Shoots-Reinhard, B., Opalek, J., & Zhu, M. (2023). Advanced driver training's impact on teen driver skills. Transportation Research Record.

  • Markowitz, D.M., Hancock, J.T., Woodworth, M.T., & Ely, M. (2023). Contextual considerations for deception production and detection in forensic interviews. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, 1-7.

  •  Nadratowski, A., Shoots-Reinhard, B., Shafer, A., Detweiler-Bedell, J., Detweiler-Bedell, B., Leachman, S., & Peters, E. (2023). Evidence-based communication to increase melanoma knowledge and skin checks. JID Innovations, 100253.

  • Peters, E. & Shoots-Reinhard, B. (2023). Better decision making through objective numeracy and numeric self-efficacy. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology.

  • Silverstein, M.C., Bjälkebring, P., Shoots-Reinhard, B., & Peters, E. (2023). The Numeric Understanding Measures (NUM): Developing and validating adaptive and non-adaptive numeracy scales. Judgment and Decision Making, 18, e19, 1–19.

  • Silverstein, M.C., Lee, C.N., Scherer, L.D., Phommasathit, C., Merrill, A.L., & Peters, E. (2023). Operating on anxiety: Negative affect toward breast cancer and choosing contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. Medical Decision Making, 43 (2), 152-163.

  • Shoots-Reinhard, B., Svensson, H., Shihab, M. Peters, E., & Zhu, M. (2023). Barriers to enforcing laws and support for restricting cell phone use while driving among law enforcement officers. Transportation Research Record, 2677 (5) 629-635.

  • Slavik, C.E., Philipsborn, R., Peters, E. (2023). Educating families about the impacts of wildfire smoke on children’s health: opportunities for healthcare professionals. BMJ Paediatrics Open, (1), 1-2. 

  • Svensson, H., Shoots-Reinhard, B., & Cole, S. (2023). Goal disruption during COVID-19: Reimagining goals during a global pandemic. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 17 (11) e12863.

  • Taber, J.M., Peters, E., Klein, W.M.P., Cameron, L.D., Turbitt, E., & Biesecker, B.B. (2023). Motivations to learn genomic information are not exceptional: Lessons from behavioral science. Clinical Genetics, 104, 397–405.


  • Best, R., Carman, K.G., Parker, A.M., & Peters, E. (2022). Age declines in numeracy: An analysis of longitudinal data. Psychology and Aging, 37 (3), 298. 

  • Boyce-Jacino, C., Peters, E., Galvani, A.P., & Chapman, G.B. (2022). Large numbers cause magnitude neglect: The case of government expenditures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 119 (28), e2203037119.

  • Keij, S.M., de Boer, J.E., Stiggelbout, A.M., Bruine de Bruin, W., Peters, E., Moaddine, S., Kunneman, M., & Pieterse, A.H. (2022).  How are patient-related characteristics associated with shared decision-making about treatment? A scoping review of quantitative studies. BMJ Open, 12, e057293.

  • Peters, E., Boyd, P., Cameron, L.D., Contractor, N., Diefenbach, M.A., Fleszar-Pavlovic, S., Markowitz, E., Salas, R.N., & Stephens, K.K. (2022). Evidence-based recommendations for communicating the impacts of climate change on health. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 12 (4), 543-553. 

  • Peters, E., & Salas, R.N. (2022). Communicating statistics on the health effects of climate change, New England Journal of Medicine, 387 (3), 193-196.

  • Peters, E. & Shoots-Reinhard, B. (2022). Numeracy and the motivational mind: The power of numeric self-efficacy. Medical Decision Making, 42 (6), 729-740.

  • Shihab, M. & Shoots-Reinhard, B. (2022). Ironic effects of political ideology and increased risk-taking in Ohio drivers during COVID-19 shutdown. PLoS ONE, 17 (12), e0279160.

  • Shoots-Reinhard, B., Lawrence, E., Schulkin, J., & Peters, E. (2022). Excluding numeric side-effect information produces lower vaccine intentions. Vaccine, 40 (31), 4262-4269.

  • Shoots-Reinhard, B., Svensson, H., Shihab, M., Peters, E., & Zhu, M. (2022). Barriers to enforcing laws and support for anti-cellphone-use-while-driving strategies among law enforcement officers. Transportation Research Record, 1-7.

  • Svensson, H., Shoots-Reinhard, B., Cravens-Brown, L., & Peters, E. (2022). Greater objective numeracy protects COVID-19 pandemic grades but endangers academic interest. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology, 8 (4), 315–329.

  • Tiede, K.E., Bjälkebring, P., & Peters, E. (2022). Numeracy, numeric attention, and number use in judgment and choice. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 35 (3), e2264,

  • Ward McIntosh, C.M., Walshe, E.A., Cheng, S., Winston, F.K., & Peters, E. (2022). Keep it brief and targeted: Driving performance feedback report features to use with novice drivers. Adolescents, 2, 448-458.


  • Aldama, A., Bicchieri, C., Freundt, J., Mellers, B., & Peters, E. (2021). How perceptions of autonomy relate to beliefs about inequality and fairness. PLOS ONE, 16 (1), e0244387. 

  • Barker, A., Joynt Maddox, K.E., Peters, E., Huang, K., & Politi, M. (2021). Predicting future utilization using self-reported health and health conditions in a longitudinal cohort study: Implications for health insurance decision support. Inquiry, 58, 1-9. 

  • Bjälkebring, P. & Peters, E. (2021). Money matters (especially if you are good at math): Numeracy, verbal intelligence, education, and income in satisfaction judgments. PLOS ONE, 16 (11), e0259331. 

  • Bonner, C., Trevena, L.J., Gaissmaier, W., Han, P.K.J., Okan, Y., Ozanne, E., Peters, E., Timmermans, D., Zikmund-Fisher, B.J. (2021). Current best practice for presenting probabilities in patient decision aids: Fundamental principles. Medical Decision Making, 41 (7), 821-833. 

  • Chesney, D., Shoots-Reinhard, B., & Peters, E. (2021). The causal impact of numeracy on normative judgments: Improving numeracy via symbolic and non-symbolic arithmetic practice improves risky judgments. Journal of Numerical Cognition (JNC), 7 (3), 351-367. 

  • Lee, C.N., Merrill, A.L., & Peters, E. (2021). The role of emotion in surgical decision making: Applying concepts from decision psychology. Annals of Surgery, 273 (6), e265-e267. 

  • Markowitz, D. M., Shoots-Reinhard, B., Peters, E., Silverstein, M. C., Goodwin, R., & Bjälkebring, P. (2021). Dehumanization during the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Psychology, 12,

  • Peters, E. (2021). Response to “Do the Math” by Joachim I. Krueger. The American Journal of Psychology, 134 (2), 245-246. 

  • Peters, E. (2021). Reflections on “Innumeracy in the Wild.” Numeracy, 14 (1), 8. 

  • Shoots-Reinhard, B., Goodwin, R., Bjälkebring, P., Markowitz, D., Silverstein, M., & Peters, E. (2021). Ability-related political polarization in the COVID-19 pandemic. Intelligence, 88, 101580.

  • Shoots-Reinhard, B., Svensson, H., & Peters, E. (2021). Support for legislative, technological, and organizational strategies to reduce cellphone use while driving: Psychological predictors and influences of language. Traffic Injury Prevention.

  • Trevena, L.J., Bonner, C., Okan, Y., Peters, E., Gaissmaier, W., Han, P.K.J., Ozanne, E., Timmermans, D., Zikmund-Fisher, B.J. (2021). Current challenges when using numbers in patient decision aids: Advanced concepts. Medical Decision Making, 41 (7), 834-847. 

  • Way, B.M., Peters, E., & Keaveney, A. (2021). The need for studies of acetaminophen’s impact on risk-taking in daily life; reply to Ross and Holstege (2021). Social Cognitive and Affective Science,


  • Estrada-Mejia, C., Peters, E., Dieckmann, N.F., Zeelenberg, M., de Vries, M., & Baker, D. (2020). Schooling, numeracy and wealth accumulation: A study involving an agrarian population. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 54, 648-674. 

  • Ferrer, R. A., Taber, J. T., Sheeran, P., Bryan, A. D., Cameron, L. D., Peters, E., Lerner, J.L., Grenen, E., & Klein, W. M. P. (2020). The role of incidental affective states in appetitive risk behavior: A meta-analysis. Health Psychology, 39 (12), 1109-1124. 

  • Keaveney, A., Peters, E., & Way, B. (2020). Effects of acetaminophen on risk taking. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 15 (7), 725-732. 

  • Lazard, A.J., Byron, M.J., Peters, E., & Brewer, N.T. (2020). Communicating about chemicals in cigarette smoke: Impact on knowledge and misunderstanding. Tobacco Control, 29 (5), 556-563. 

  • Munoz, I.G., Baker, D.P., & Peters, E. (2020). Explaining the education-health gradient in preventing STIs in Andean Peru: Cognitive executive functioning, awareness, and health knowledge. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 46, 113-124. 

  • Nowell, W.B., Venkatachalam, S., Stake, C., Harden, E., Fraenkel, L., Peters, E., & Concannon, T. (2020). Identifying patient decisions and related information needs during decision making related to total knee arthroplasty. Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, 9 (16), 1153-1166. 

  • Rolison, J.J., Morsanyi, K., & Peters, E. (2020). Understanding health risk comprehension: The role of math anxiety, subjective numeracy, and objective numeracy. Medical Decision Making, 40 (2), 222-234. 

  • Shoots-Reinhard, B., Erford, B., Romer, D., Evans, A. T., Shoben, A., Klein, E. G., & Peters, E. (2020). Numeracy and memory for risk probabilities and risk outcomes depicted on cigarette warning labels. Health Psychology, 39 (8), 721-730.

  • Van Bavel, J. J., Baicker, K., Boggio, P. S., Capraro, V., Cichocka, A., Cikara, M., Crockett, M. J., Crum, A. J., Douglas, K. M., Druckman, J. N. Drury, J., Dube, O., Ellemers, N., Finkel, E. J., Fowler, J. H., Gelfand, M., Han, S., Haslam, S. A., Jetten, J., Kitayama, S., Mobbs, D., Napper, L. E., Packer, D. J., Pennycook, G., Peters, E., Petty, R. E., Rand, D. G., Reicher, S. D., Schnall, S., Shariff, A., Skitka, L. J., Smith, S. S., Sunstein, C. R., Tabri, N., Tucker, J. A., van der Linden, S., Van Lange, P. A. M., Weeden, K. A., Wohl, M. J. A., Zaki, J., Zion, S. & Willer, R. (2020). Using social and behavioural science to support COVID-19 pandemic response. Nature Human Behaviour

  • Yilmaz, N.G., Van Weert, J.C.M., Peters, E., Lissenberg-Witte, B.I., Becker, A., Senan, S., Dickhoff, C., Timmermans, D.R.M., & Damman, O.C. (2020). Testing the effects of modality and narration style on patients’ information use in a lung cancer treatment decision aid. Medical Decision Making, 40 (8), 990-1002. 


  • Ellis, E.M., Barnato, A.E., Chapman, G.B., Dionne-Odom, J.N., Lerner, J.S., Peters, E., Nelson, W.L., Padgett, L., Suls, J., Ferrer, R.A. (2019). Towards a conceptual model of affective predictions in palliative care. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 57 (6):1151-1165. 

  • Fraenkel, L., Nowell, W.B., Stake, C.E., Venkatachalam, S., Eyler, R., Michel, G., & Peters, E. (2019). The impact of information presentation format on preference for total knee replacement surgery. Arthritis Care & Research, 71 (3), 379-384.

  • Kaufman, A.R., Twesten, J.E., Suls, J.M., McCaul, K.D., Ostroff, J.S., Ferrer, R.A., Brewer, N.T., Cameron, L.D., Halpern-Felsher, B., Hay, J.L., Park, E.R., Peters, E., Strong, D.R., Waters, E.A., Weinstein, N.D., Windschitl, P.D., & Klein, W.M.P. (2019). Measuring cigarette smoking risk perceptions. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 22 (11). 

  • Klein, E.G., Quisenberry, A.J., Shoben, A.B., Romer, D., & Peters, E. (2019). The influence of health numeracy and health warning label type on smoking myths and quit-related reactions. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 21 (7), 974-978.

  • Lazard, A. J., Byron, M. J., Vu, H., Peters, E., Schmidt, A., & Brewer, N. T. (2019). Website designs for communicating about chemicals in cigarette smoke. Health Communication, 34 (3), 333-342. 

  • Lazaroff, S.M., Meara, A., Tompkins, M. K., Peters, E., & Ardoin, S.P. (2019). How do health literacy, numeric competencies, and patient activation relate to transition readiness in adolescents and young adults with rheumatic diseases? Arthritis Care & Research, 71 (9), 1264-1269.

  • Peters, E., Fennema, M.G., & Tiede, K.E. (2019). The loss-bet paradox: Actuaries, accountants, and other numerate people rate numerically inferior gambles as superior. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 32, 15–29.

  • Peters, E., Shoots-Reinhard, B., Shoben, A., Evans, A.T., Klein, E., *Tompkins, M.K., Romer, D., & Tusler, M. (2019). Pictorial warning labels and memory for cigarette health-risk information over time. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 53, 358–371,

  • Peters, E., Tompkins, M.K., Knoll, M., Ardoin, S.P., Shoots-Reinhard, B., & Meara, A.S. (2019). Despite high objective numeracy, lower numeric confidence relates to worse financial and medical outcomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS),

  • Thrasher, J.F., Brewer, N.T., Niederdeppe, J., Peters, E., Strasser, A.A., Grana, R., & Kaufman, A.R. (2019). Advancing tobacco product warning labels research methods and theory: A summary of a grantee meeting held by the US National Cancer Institute. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 21 (7), 855-862.


  • Byron, M. J., Lazard, A. J., Peters, E., Vu, H., Schmidt, A., & Brewer, N. T. (2018). Effective formats for communicating risks from cigarette smoke chemicals. Tobacco Regulatory Science, 4 (2), 16-29.

  • Emani, S., Peters, E., Desai, S., Karson, A.S., Lipsitz, S.R., LaRocca, R, Stone, J., Suric, V., Wald, J., Wheeler, A., Williams, D.H., & Bates, D.W. (2018). Who adopts a patient portal?: An application of the diffusion of innovation model. Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics, 25 (3), 149–157. 

  • Evans, A., Peters, E., Keller-Hamilton, B., Loiewski, C., Slater, M., Lu, B., Roberts, M., & Ferketich, A. (2018). Warning size affects what adolescents recall from tobacco advertisements. Tobacco Regulatory Science, 4 (3), 79-87.

  • Evans, A.T., Peters, E., Shoben, A., Meilleur, L., Klein, E., Tompkins, M.K., & Tusler, M. (2018). Cigarette graphic warning labels increase both risk perceptions and smoking myth endorsement. Psychology & Health, Special Issue on Emotion, Health Decision Making, and Behaviour, 33 (2), 213-234.

  • Eisenberg, I.W., Bissett, P.G., Canning, J.R., Dallery, J., Enkavi, A.Z., Whitfield-Gabrieli, S., Gonzalez, O., Green, A.I., Greene, M.A., Kiernan, M., Kim, S.J., Li, J., Lowe, M.R., Mazza, G.L., Metcalf, S.A., Onken, L., Parikh, S.S., Peters, E., Prochaska, J.J., Scherer, E.A., Stoeckel, L.E., Valente, M.J., Wu, J., Xie, H., MacKinnon, D.P., Marsch, L.A., & Poldrack, R.A. (2018). Applying novel technologies and methods to inform the ontology of self-regulation. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 101, 46-57.

  • Fraenkel, L., Stolar, M., Bates, J.R., Street, R.L., Swift, S., & Peters, E. (2018). Variability in affect and willingness to take medication. Medical Decision Making 38 (1), 34-43. 

  • Londerée, A.M., Roberts, M.E., Wewers, M.E., Peters, E., Ferketich, A.K., & Wagner, D.D. (2018). Adolescent attentional bias toward real-world flavored e-cigarette marketing. Tobacco Regulatory Science 4 (6), 57-65. 

  • Peters, E. & Shoots-Reinhard, B. (2018). Don’t throw the baby out with the bath water: Commentary on Kok, Peters, Kessels, ten Hoor, and Ruiter (2018). Health Psychology Review.

  • Politi, M.C., Shacham, E., Barker, A.R., George, N., Mir, N., Philpott, S., Liu, J.E., & Peters, E. (2018). A comparison between subjective and objective methods of predicting health care expenses to support consumers’ health insurance plan choice. Medical Decision Making: Policy & Practice 3 (1), 2381468318781093. 

  • Quisenberry, A.J., Scott, A.E., Shoben, A.B., Ferketich, A.K., Cooper, S.E., Berman, M., Peters, E., Wewers, M.E., & Klein, E.G. (2018). Health literacy and attention to cigarette health warning labels among rural smokers. Tobacco & Regulatory Science 4 (6), 38-46. 

  • Romer, D., Ferguson, S., Strasser, A.A., Evans, A.T., Tompkins, M.K., Macisco, J., Fardal, M., Tusler, M., & Peters, E. (2018). Effects of pictorial warning labels for cigarettes and quit-efficacy on emotional responses, smoking satisfaction, and cigarette consumption: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 52, 53-64.

  • Smith, K. T., Monti, D., Mir, N., Peters, E., Tipirneni, R., & Politi, M. C. (2018). Access is necessary but not sufficient: Factors influencing delay and avoidance of health care services. Medical Decision Making: Policy & Practice, 3 (1), 2381468318760298. 


  • Anderson, B.L., Peters, E., Fialkow, M.F., Taouk, L.H., & Schulkin, J. (2017) Obstetricians and gynecologists’ opinions about the Affordable Care Act and their expectations about how it will impact their practice. Preventive Medicine Reports, 7, 216-220.

  • Berman, M.L., Byron, M.J., Hemmerich, N., Lindblom, E.N., Lazard, A.J., Peters, E., & Brewer, N.T. (2017). Communicating tobacco product information to the public. Food & Drug Law Journal, 72 (3), 386-405. 

  • Cameron, L.D., Biesecker, B.B., Peters, E., Taber, J.M., & Klein, W.M.P. (2017). Self-regulation principles underlying risk perception and decision making within the context of genomic testing. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 11 (5), e12315. 

  • Dieckmann, N. F., Gregory, R., Peters, E., & Hartman, R. (2017). Seeing what you want to see: How imprecise uncertainty ranges enhance motivated cognition. Risk Analysis, 37 (3), 471-486.

  • Evans, A.T., Peters, E., Shoben, A., Meilleur, L., Klein, E., Tompkins, M.K., Romer, D., & Tusler, M. (2017). Cigarette graphic warning labels are not created equal: They can increase or decrease smokers’ quit intentions relative to text-only warnings. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 19 (10), 1155-1162. 

  • Fraenkel, L., Stolar, M., Swift, S., Street, R.L., Chowdhary, H., & Peters, E. (2017). Subjective numeracy and the influence of order and amount of audible information on perceived medication value. Medical Decision Making, 37, 230-238.

  • Kahan, D.M., Peters, E., Dawson, E.C., & Slovic, P. (2017). Motivated numeracy and enlightened self-government. Behavioural Public Policy, 1 (1), 54-86. 

  • Klein, E.G., Quisenberry, A., Shoben, A.B., Krygowski, S., Ferketich, A.K., Berman, M., Peters, E., Wewers, M.E. (2017). Health warning labels for smokeless tobacco: The impact of graphic images on attention, recall, and craving. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 19 (10), 1172-1177. 

  • Lazard, A., Schmidt, A., Vu, H., Byron, M. J., Peters, E., Boynton, M. H., & Brewer, N. T. (2017). Icons for health effects of cigarette smoke: A test of semiotic type. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 40 (4), 641-650. 

  • Peters, E. (2017). Educating good decisions. Behavioural Public Policy, 1 (2), 162-176.

  • Peters, E., Shoots-Reinhard, B., Tompkins, M.K., Schley, D., Meilleur, L., Sinayev, A., Tusler, M., Wagner, L., & Crocker, J. (2017). Improving numeracy through values affirmation enhances decision and STEM outcomes. PLoS ONE, 12 (7): e0180674.

  • Schley, D.R., Lembregts, C. & Peters, E. (2017). The role of evaluation mode on the unit effect. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 27 (2), 278-286.


  • Dallacker, M., Hertwig, R., Peters, E., & Mata, J. (2016). Lower parental numeracy is associated with children being under- and overweight. Social Science & Medicine, 161, 126-133. 

  • Fraenkel, L., Peters, E., Tyra, S., & Oelberg, D. (2016). Shared medical decision making in lung cancer screening: Experienced vs. descriptive risk formats. Medical Decision Making, 36 (4), 518-525. 

  • Han, P., Dieckmann, N.F., Holt, C., Gutheil, C., & Peters, E. (2016). Factors affecting physicians' intentions to communicate personalized prognostic information to cancer patients at the end of life: An experimental vignette study. Medical Decision Making, 36 (6), 703-713. 

  • Peters, E., Evans, A.T., Hemmerich, N., & Berman, M. (2016). Emotion in the law and the lab: The case of graphic cigarette warnings. Tobacco Regulatory Science, 2 (4), 404-413. 

  • Politi, M.C., Kuzemchak, M.D., Liu, J., Barker, A.R., Peters, E., Ubel, P.A., Kaphingst, K.A., McBride, T., Kreuter, M.W., Shacham, E., & Philpott, S.E. (2016). Show Me My Health Plans: Using a decision aid to improve decisions in the federal health insurance marketplace. Medical Decision Making Policy & Practice, 1 (1), 2381468316679998. 

  • Roberts, M.E., Peters, E., Ferketich, A.K., & Klein, E.G. (2016). The age-related positivity effect and tobacco warning labels. Tobacco Regulatory Science, 2 (2), 176-185. 


  • Baker, D.P., Eslinger, P., Benavides, M., Peters, E., Dieckmann, N.F., & Leon, J. (2015). The cognitive impact of the education revolution: A possible cause of the Flynn Effect on population IQ. Intelligence, 49, 144-158. 

  • Chesney, D., Bjälkebring, P., & Peters. E. (2015). How to estimate how well people estimate: Evaluating measures of individual differences in the approximate number system. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 77 (8), 2781-2802. 

  • Dieckmann, N.F., Peters, E., & Gregory, R. (2015). At home on the range? Lay perceptions of uncertainty distributions. Risk Analysis, 35 (7), 1281–1295. 

  • Dieckmann, N.F., Peters, E., Leon, J., Benavides, M., Baker, D.P., & Norris, A. (2015). The role of numeracy and fluid intelligence in sex-related protective behaviors. Current HIV Research, 13 (5), 337-346. 

  • Evans, A.T., Peters, E., Strasser, A.A., Emery, L.F., Sheerin, K, & Romer, D. (2015). Graphic warning labels elicit affective and thoughtful responses from smokers: Results of a randomized clinical trial. PLoS ONE, 10 (12): e0142879.

  • Fraenkel, L., Cunningham, M., & Peters, E. (2015). Subjective numeracy and preference to stay with the status quo. Medical Decision Making, 35 (1), 6-11. 

  • Fraenkel, L., Matzko, C.K., Webb, D.E., Oppermann, B., Charpentier, P., Peters, E., Reyna, V., & Newman, E.D. (2015). Use of decision support for improved knowledge, value clarification and informed choice in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care & Research, 67 (11), 1496-1502. 

  • Klein, E.G., Krygowski, S., Shoben, A.B., Ferketich, A.K., Peters, E., Unnava, H.R., & Wewers, M.E. (2015). Does size matter for graphic health warnings on cigarette advertising? Tobacco Regulatory Science, 2 (11), 175-185. 

  • Morgan, K. & Peters, E. (2015). Cancer and “bad luck”: Risk perception, decision making and risk-reducing behavior. Risk Analysis, 35 (4), 558-559. 

  • Myers, T.A., Maibach, E., Peters, E., & Leiserowitz, A. (2015). Simple messages help set the record straight about scientific agreement on human-caused climate change: The results of two experiments. PLoS ONE, 10 (3), e0120985-e0120985. 

  • Peters, E. & Bjälkebring, P. (2015). Multiple numeric competencies: When a number is not just a number. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108 (5), 802-822. 

  • Shen, M.J., Nelson, C.J., Peters, E., Slovin, S.F., Hall, S.J., Hall, M., Herrera, P.C., Leventhal, E.A., Leventhal, H., & Diefenbach, M.A. (2015). Decision-making processes among prostate cancer survivors with rising PSA levels: Results from a qualitative analysis. Medical Decision Making, 35 (4), 477-486. 

  • Shoots-Reinhard, B., Petty, R. E., DeMarree, K. G., & Rucker, D. D. (2015). Personality certainty and politics: Increasing the predictive utility of individual-difference inventories. Journal of Political Psychology, 36 (4), 415-430.

  • Sinayev, A. & Peters, E. (2015). The impact of cognitive reflection versus calculation in decision making. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 532.

  • Sinayev, A., Peters, E., Tusler, M., & Fraenkel, L. (2015). Presenting numeric information with percentages and descriptive risk labels: A randomized trial. Medical Decision Making, 35 (8), 937-947. 

  • Strough, J., Bruine de Bruin, W., & Peters, E. (2015). New perspectives for motivating better decisions in older adults. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 783.


  • Emery, L.F., Romer, D., Sheerin, K.M., Jamieson, K.H., & Peters, E. (2014). Affective and cognitive mediators of the impact of cigarette warning labels. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 16, 3, 263-269. 

  • Peters, E., Hart, S., Tusler, M., & Fraenkel, L. (2014). Numbers matter to informed patient choices: The effects of age and numeracy. Medical Decision Making, 34 (4), 430-442. 

  • Schley, D.R. & Peters, E. (2014). Assessing “economic value”: Symbolic-number mappings predict risky and riskless valuations. Psychological Science, 25 (3), 753-761. 

  • Shoots-Reinhard, B., Rucker, D. D., Petty, R. E., & Shakarchi, R. (2014). Not all contrast effects are created equal: extent of processing affects contrast strength. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44 (8), 523-535. 

  • Västfjäll, D., Peters, E., & Slovic, P. (2014). The affect heuristic, mortality salience, and risk: Domain-specific effects of a natural disaster on risk-benefit perception. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 55 (6), 527-532. 

  • Västfjäll, D., Slovic, P., Mayorga, M., & Peters, E. (2014). Compassion fade: Affect and charity are greatest for a single child in need. PLoS ONE, 9 (6), e100115, 1-10. 


  • Carpenter, S., Peters, E., Västfjäll, D., & Isen, A.M. (2013). Positive feelings facilitate working memory and complex decision making among older adults. Cognition & Emotion, 27 (1), 184-192. 

  • Falzer, P. R., Leventhal, H. L., Peters, E., Fried, T. R., Kern, R., Michalski, M., & Fraenkel, L. (2013). The practitioner proposes a treatment change and the patient declines: What to do next? Pain Practice, 13, 3, 215-226. 

  • Kleber, J., Dickert, S., Peters, E., & Florack, A. (2013). Same numbers, different meanings: How numeracy influences the importance of numbers for pro-social behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 699-705. 

  • Peters, E., Klein, W. M., Kaufman, A., Meilleur, L, & Dixon, A. (2013). More is not always better: Intuitions about public policy can lead to unintended health consequences. Social Issues and Policy Review, 7 (1), 114-148. 

  • Romer, D., Peters, E., Strasser, A., & Langleben, D. (2013). Desire versus efficacy in smokers' paradoxical reactions to pictorial health warnings for cigarettes. PLoS ONE, 8 (1): e54937.

  • Trevena, L.J., Zikmund-Fisher, B., Edwards, A., Galesic, M., Gaissmaier, W., Han, P., King, J., Lawson, M.L., Linder, S.K., Lipkus, I., Ozanne, E., Peters, E., Timmermans, D., & Woloshin, S. (2013). Presenting quantitative information about decision outcomes: A risk communication primer for decision aid developers. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 13 (Suppl 2):S7, 1-15. 

  • Weller, J., Dieckmann, N. F., Tusler, M., Mertz, C. K., Burns, W. J., & Peters, E. (2013). Development and testing of an abbreviated numeracy scale: A Rasch Analysis approach. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 26 (2), 198-212. 


  • Arkes, H. R., Shoots-Reinhard, B., & Mayes, R. M. (2012). Disjunction between probability and verdict in juror decision making. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 25 (3), 276-294. 

  • Burns, W. J., Peters, E., & Slovic, P. (2012). Risk perception and the economic crisis: A longitudinal study of the trajectory of perceived risk. Risk Analysis, 32 (4), 659–677. 

  • Dieckmann, N. F., Peters, E., Gregory, R., & Tusler, M. (2012). Making sense of uncertainty: Advantages and disadvantages of providing an evaluative structure. Journal of Risk Research, 15 (7), 717-735. 

  • Emani, S., Yamin, C. K., Peters, E., Karson, A. S., Lipsitz, S. R., Wald, J. S., Williams, D. H., & Bates, D. W. (2012). Patient perceptions of a personal health record: A test of the diffusion of innovation model. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14 (6), e150. 

  • Fraenkel, L., Falzer, P. Fried, T, Kohler, M., Peters, E., Kerns, R., & Leventhal, H. (2012). Measuring pain impact versus pain severity using a numeric rating scale. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 27 (5), 555-560. 

  • Fraenkel, L., Peters, E., Charpentier, P., Olson, B., Errante, L., Schoen, R., & Reyna, V. (2012). A decision tool to improve the quality of care in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care & Research, 64 (7), 977-985. 

  • Gregory, R., Dieckmann, N. F., Peters, E., Failing, L., Long, G., & Tusler, M. (2012). Deliberative disjunction: Expert and public understanding of outcome uncertainty. Risk Analysis, 32 (12), 2071-2083. 

  • Johnson, E. J., Shu, S., Dellaert, B. G. C., Fox, C. R., Goldstein, D. G., Haubl, G., Larrick, R. P., Peters, E., Payne, J. W., Schkade, D., Wansink, B., & Weber, E. U. (2012). Beyond nudges: Tools of a choice architecture. Marketing Letters, 23, 487-504. 

  • Kahan, D. M., Peters, E., Wittlin, M., Slovic, P., Ouellette, L. L., Braman, D., & Mandel, G. (2012). The polarizing impact of science literacy and numeracy on perceived climate change risks. Nature Climate Change, 2, 732-745. 

  • Peters, E. (2012). Beyond comprehension: The role of numeracy in judgments and decisions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21 (1), 31 - 35. 

  • Peters, E., Kunreuther, H., Sagara, N., Slovic, P., & *Schley, D. R. (2012). Protective measures, personal experience, and the affective psychology of time. Risk Analysis, 32 (12), 2084-2097. 

  • Schonlau, M. & Peters, E. (2012). Comprehension of graphs and tables depend on the task: Empirical evidence from two web-based studies. Statistics, Politics and Policy, 3 (2), Article 5. 

  • Schroy, P. C., Emmons, K. M., Peters, E., Glick, J. T., Robinson, P. A., Lydotes, M. A., Mylvaganam, S. R., Coe, A. M., Chen, C., Chaisson, C. E., Pignone, M. P., Prout, M. N., Davidson, P. K., & Heeren, T. C. (2012). Aid-assisted decision making and colorectal cancer screening: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 43 (6), 573-583. 


  • Dickert, S., Kleber, J., Peters, E., & Slovic, P. (2011). Numeracy as a precursor to pro-social behavior: The impact of numeracy and presentation format on the cognitive mechanisms underlying donations. Judgment and Decision Making, 6 (7), 638-650. 

  • Fraenkel, L. & Peters, E., (2011). Patients’ reaction to the disclosure of rare dreaded adverse events. Patient Education and Counseling, 84 (2), e1-e4. 

  • Gregory, R., Peters, E., & Slovic, P. (2011). Making decisions about prescription drugs: A study of doctor-patient communication. Health Risk & Society, 13 (4), 347-371. 

  • Henningfield, J. E., Hatsukami, D. K., Zeller, M., & Peters, E. (2011). Conference on abuse liability and appeal of tobacco products: Conclusions and recommendations. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 116, 1–7. 

  • Peters, E., Hart, S., & Fraenkel, L. (2011). Informing patients: The influence of numeracy, framing, and format of side effect information on risk perceptions. Medical Decision Making, 31 (3), 432-436. 

  • Schroy, P. C., Emmons, K., Peters, E., Glick, J. T., Robinson, P. A., Lydotes, M. A., Mylvanaman, S., Evans, S., Chaisson, C., Pignone, M., Prout, M., Davidson, P., & Heeren, T. C. (2011). The impact of a novel computer-based decision aid on shared decision-making for colorectal cancer screening: A randomized trial. Medical Decision Making, 31 (1), 93-107. 

  • Svenson, O., Eriksson, G., Salo, I., & Peters, E. (2011). Judgments of mean speed and predictions of route choice. Transportation Research Part F, 14 (6), 504-511. 


  • Kahan, D. M., Braman, D., Monahan, J. Callahan, L., & Peters, E. (2010). Cultural cognition and public policy: The case of outpatient commitment laws. Law and Human Behavior, 34(2), 118-140. 

  • Lipkus, I. M., Peters, E., Kimmick, G., Liotcheva, V., & Marcom, P. (2010). Breast cancer patients’ treatment expectations after exposure to the decision aid program, Adjuvant Online: The influence of numeracy. Medical Decision Making, 30(4), 464-473. 

  • Peters, E., Baker, D. P., Dieckmann, N. F., Leon, J., & Collins, J. (2010). Explaining the effect of education on health: A field study in Ghana. Psychological Science, 21(10), 1369–1376. 


  • Dieckmann, N. F., Slovic, P., & Peters, E.M. (2009). The use of narrative evidence and explicit likelihood by decision makers varying in numeracy. Risk Analysis, 29 (10), 1473-1488. 

  • Epstein, R. M. & Peters, E. (2009). Beyond information: Exploring patients’ preferences. The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 302 (2), 195-197. 

  • Fraenkel, L. & Peters, E. (2009). Patient responsibility for medical decision making and risky treatment options. Arthritis Care & Research, 61 (12), 1674-1676. 

  • Greene, J. & Peters, E. (2009). Medicaid consumers and informed decision making. Health Care Financing Review, 30 (3), 25-40. 

  • Lipkus, I. M. & Peters, E. (2009). Understanding the role of numeracy in health: Proposed theoretical framework and practical insights. Health Education and Behavior, 36 (6), 1065-1081. 

  • Peters, E. (2009). A perspective on eating behaviors from the field of judgment and decision making. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 38, S81–S87, special supplement on Decision Making in Eating Behavior: Interacting Perspectives from the Individual, Family and Environment.

  • Peters, E. & Castel, A. (2009). Numerical representation, math skills, memory, and decision making. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32 (3-4), 347-348. 

  • Peters, E., Dieckmann, N.F., Västfjäll, D., Mertz, C.K., Slovic, P., & Hibbard, J. H. (2009). Bringing meaning to numbers: The impact of evaluative categories on decisions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 15 (3), 213–227. 


  • Cole, C., Laurent, G., Drolet, A., Ebert, J., Gutchess, A., Lambert-Pandraud, R., Mullet, E., Norton, M. I., & Peters, E. (2008). Decision making and brand choice by older consumers. Marketing Letters, 19, 355–365. 

  • Greene, J., Peters, E., Mertz, C. K., & Hibbard, J. H. (2008). Comprehension and choice of a consumer-directed health plan: An experimental study. The American Journal of Managed Care, 14 (6), 369-376. 

  • Nelson, W., Reyna, V. F., Fagerlin, A., Lipkus, I., & Peters, E. (2008). Clinical implications of numeracy: Theory and practice. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35, 261–274. 

  • Peters, E., Diefenbach, M. A., Hess, T. M., & Västfjäll, D. (2008). Age differences in dual information-processing modes: Implications for cancer decision making. Cancer, 113 (12), 3556-3567. 

  • Peters, E. & Levin, I. P. (2008). Dissecting the risky-choice framing effect: Numeracy as an individual-difference factor in weighting risky and riskless options. Judgment and Decision Making, 3 (6), 435–448. 

  • Peters, E., Slovic, P., Västfjäll, D., & Mertz, C. K. (2008). Intuitive numbers guide decisions. Judgment and Decision Making, 3 (8), 619-635.

  • Västfjäll, D., Peters, E., & Slovic, P. (2008). Affect, risk perception and future optimism after the tsunami disaster. Judgment and Decision Making, 3 (1), 64-72. 


  • Barnato, A. E., Collins, E. D., Llewellyn-Thomas, H. A., Peters, E. M., Siminoff, L., Collins, E. D., & Barry, M. J. (2007). Communication and decision making in cancer care: Setting research priorities for decision support/patients’ decision aids. Medical Decision Making, 27 (5), 626-634. 

  • Bateman, I., Dent, S., Peters, E., Slovic, P., & Starmer, C. (2007). The affect heuristic and the attractiveness of simple gambles. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 20, 365-380. 

  • Hibbard, J. H., Peters, E., Dixon, A., & Tusler, M. (2007). Consumer competencies and the use of comparative quality information: It isn’t just about literacy. Medical Care Research & Review, 64 (4), 379-394. 

  • Moser, R. P., McCaul, K., Peters, E., Nelson, W., & Marcus, S. E. (2007). Associations of perceived risk and worry with cancer health-protective actions: Data from the Health Interview National Trends Survey (HINTS). Journal of Health Psychology, 12 (1), 53-65. 

  • Peters, E., Dieckmann, N., Dixon, A., Hibbard, J. H., & Mertz, C. K. (2007). Less is more in presenting quality information to consumers. Medical Care Research & Review, 64 (2), 169-190. 

  • Peters, E., Hess, T. M., Västfjäll, D., & Auman, C. (2007). Adult age differences in dual information processes: Implications for the role of affective and deliberative processes in older adults’ decision making. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2 (1), 1-23. 

  • Peters, E., Hibbard, J., Slovic, P., & *Dieckmann, N. (2007). Numeracy skill and the communication, comprehension, and use of risk-benefit information. Health Affairs, 26 (3), 741-748. 

  • Peters, E., Romer, D., Slovic, P., Jamieson, K.H., Wharfield, L., Mertz, C.K., & Carpenter, S. M. (2007). The impact and acceptability of Canadian-style cigarette warning labels among U.S. smokers and nonsmokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 9 (4), 473-481. 

  • Peters, E. & Slovic, P. (2007). Affective asynchrony and the measurement of the affective attitude component. Cognition and Emotion, 21 (2), 300-329. 

  • Slovic, P., Peters, E., Grana, J., Berger, S., & Dieck, G. S. (2007). Risk perception of prescription drugs: Results of a national survey. Drug Information Journal, 41, 81-100. 

  • Stockard, J., O'Brien, R. M., & Peters, E. (2007). The use of mixed models in a modified Iowa Gambling Task and a prisoner's dilemma game. Judgment and Decision Making, 2 (1), 9-22. 


  • Peters, E., Lipkus, I., & Diefenbach, M. A. (2006). The functions of affect in health communications and in the construction of health preferences. Journal of Communication, 56, S140-S162. 

  • Peters, E., McCaul, K. D., Stefanek, M., & Nelson, W. (2006). A heuristics approach to understanding cancer risk perception: Contributions from judgment and decision-making research. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 31 (1), 45-52. 

  • Peters, E., Slovic, P., Hibbard, J. H., & Tusler, M. (2006). Why worry? Worry, risk perceptions, and willingness to act to reduce medical errors. Health Psychology, 25 (2), 144-152. 

  • Peters, E., Västfjäll, D., Gärling, T., & Slovic, P. (2006). Affect and decision making: A “hot” topic. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 19 (2), 79-85. 

  • Peters, E., Västfjäll, D., Slovic, P., Mertz, C. K., Mazzocco, K., & Dickert, S. (2006). Numeracy and decision making. Psychological Science, 17 (5), 407-413. 

  • Slovic, P., & Peters, E. (2006). Risk perception and affect. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15 (6), 322-325. 


  • Hibbard, J. H., Peters, E., Slovic, P., & Tusler, M. (2005). Can patients be part of the solution? Views on their role in preventing medical errors. Medical Care Research and Review, 62 (5), 601-616. 

  • McCaul, K. D., Peters, E., Nelson, W., & Stefanek, M., (2005). Linking decision-making research and cancer prevention and control: Important themes. Health Psychology, 24, S106-S110. 

  • Nelson, W., Stefanek, M., Peters, E., & McCaul, K. D. (2005). Basic and applied decision making in cancer control. Health Psychology, 24, S3-S8. 

  • Peters, E., & Västfjäll, D. (2005). Affective processes in decision making by older adults. In National Research Council (Ed.), Papers from the workshop on decision making by older adults. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 

  • Slovic, P., Peters, E., Finucane, M. L., & MacGregor, D. G. (2005). Affect, risk, and decision making. Health Psychology, 24, S35-S40. 

  • Yoon, C., Laurent, G., Fung, H. H., Gonzalez, R. Gutchess, A. H., Hedden, T., Lambert-Pandraud, R., Mather, M., Park, D. C., Peters, E., & Skurnik, I. (2005). Cognition, persuasion and decision making in older consumers. Marketing Letters, 16 (3/4), 429-441.


  • Peters, E. M., Burraston, B., & Mertz, C. K. (2004). An emotion-based model of risk perception and stigma susceptibility: Cognitive appraisals, affective reactivity, worldviews, and risk perceptions in the generation of technological stigma. Risk Analysis, 24 (5), 1349-1367. 

  • Slovic, P., Finucane, M. L., Peters, E., & MacGregor, D. G. (2004). Risk as analysis and risk as feelings: Some thoughts about affect, reason, risk, and rationality. Risk Analysis, 24 (2), 311-322.


  • ​​Hibbard, J. H. & Peters, E. (2003). Supporting informed consumer health care choices: Data presentation approaches that facilitate the use of information in choice. Annual Review of Public Health, 24, 413-433. 

  • Peters, E., Slovic, P., & Gregory, R. (2003). The role of affect in the WTA/WTP disparity. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 16, 309-330. 


  • Finucane, M. L., Slovic, P., Hibbard, J. H., Peters, E., Mertz, C. K. & MacGregor, D.G. (2002). Aging and decision-making competence: An analysis of comprehension and consistency skills in older versus younger adults considering health-plan options. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 15, 141-164. 

  • Hibbard, J. H., Slovic, P., Peters, E., & Finucane, M. L. (2002). Strategies for reporting health plan performance information to consumers: Evidence from controlled studies. Health Services Research, 37 (2), 291-313. 

  • Slovic, P., Finucane, M., Peters, E., MacGregor, D. G. (2002). Rational actors or rational fools: Implications of the affect heuristic for behavioral economics. Journal of Socio-Economics, 31 (4), 329-342. 


  • Hibbard, J. H., Peters, E., Slovic, P., Finucane, M. L., & Tusler, M. (2001). Making health care quality reports easier to use. Joint Commission Journal on Quality Improvement, 27 (11), 591-604. 

  • Hibbard, J. H., Slovic, P., Peters, E., Finucane, M. L., & Tusler, M. (2001). Is the informed-choice policy approach appropriate for Medicare beneficiaries? Health Affairs, 20 (3), 199-203. 


  • Peters, E. & Rothbart, M. (2000). Typicality can create, eliminate, and reverse the dilution effect. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26 (2), 177-187.

  • Peters, E. & Slovic, P. (2000). The springs of action: Affective and analytical information processing in choice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26 (12), 1465-1475.


  • Flynn, J., Peters, E., Mertz, C.K, & Slovic, P. (1998). Risk, media, and stigma at Rocky Flats. Risk Analysis, 18 (6), 715-727.

    • Reprinted as: Flynn, J., Peters, E., Mertz, C.K., & Slovic, P. (2001). Risk, media, and stigma at Rocky Flats. In J. Flynn, P. Slovic, and H. Kunreuther (Eds.), Risk, media, and stigma: Understanding public challenges to modern science and technology. (pp.309-327). London: Earthscan Publications Ltd.​​

  • Peters, E.M. (1998). The springs of action: Affective and analytical information processing in choice. Doctoral dissertation in the Psychology Department. University of Oregon, Eugene, OR.​​​​

  • Slovic, P. & Peters, E. (1998). The importance of worldviews in risk perception. Risk, Decision, and Policy, 3 (2), 165-170.


  • Peters, E. & Slovic, P. (1996). The role of affect and worldviews as orienting dispositions in the perception and acceptance of nuclear power. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26 (16), 1427-1453.​​

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