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Weller Numeracy Scale (Weller et al. 2013)



Weller, J., Dieckmann, N. F., Tusler, M., Mertz, C. K., Burns, W., & Peters, E. (2013). Development and testing of an abbreviated numeracy scale: A Rasch Analysis approach. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 26(2),198-212. doi:10.1002/bdm.1751


Scale Materials

Materials for scale items and a corresponding Qualtrics file can be found at


Scale Update (02/2016)

Please note that the last two questions, 7. and 8., are well known on Mechanical Turk. Items from Toplak, West, and Stanovich (2014) have been used as substitutes for those questions when administering the scale on MTurk.

Toplak, M., West, R., & Stanovich, K. (2014). Assessing miserly information processiong: An expansion of the Cognitive Reflection Test. Thinking & Reasoning, 20(2), 147-168.


Scale Update (06/2014)

Please note that we adjusted the list of accepted answers for most of the items. Many of these newly accepted answers include alternative formats to previously accepted answers. Further commentary is included in the additional material.


Scale Update (02/2013)

Please note that we adjusted the mammogram item on the numeracy scale to reduce guessing and improve the scale further (i.e., before the answer to the item was 1/2). There is evidence suggesting that when people do not know the answer to a probability judgment their answer is 1/2 or 50% (Fischhoff & Bruine de Bruin, 1999).

Please direct any questions to

If you would prefer to use the Numeric Understanding Measures (Silverstein et al. 2023), please click here.

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